global temperature longterm; carbon cycle; Venus’ climate

Plot showing the variations, and relative stability, of climate during the last 12000 years.

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Temperature estimates relative to today from over 800,000 years of the EPICA ice cores in Antarctica. Today’s date is on the right side of the graph.

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 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Five_Myr_Climate_Change.svg

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The ocean is the primary carbon sink on moderate time scales (100-1000 years), so of the 5000 gigatonnes of carbon that humans could emit into the atmosphere (from onset industrial revolution to 2400 A.D.) the ocean would probably absorb perhaps 70% after 1000 years.  -Zachos et alia:  Nature, Jan 2008, see file:///C:/Users/Val/Downloads/Zachosetal&%2339%3B08.pdf

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The ocean sink (-76 ppm) and land sink (-68 ppm) have absorbed 56% of human carbon emissions since 1750, keeping global carbon dioxide concentrations ‘down’ to 393 ppm in 2012.
http://shrinkthatfootprint.com/carbon-emissions-and-sinks#f5bGHSlr05PW04Ww.99

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Through a series of chemical reactions and tectonic activity, carbon takes between 100-200 million years to move between rocks, soil, ocean, and atmosphere in the slow carbon cycle. On average, 1013 to 1014 grams (10–100 million metric tons) of carbon move through the slow carbon cycle every year. In comparison, human emissions of carbon to the atmosphere are on the order of 1015 grams, whereas the fast carbon cycle moves 1016 to 1017 grams of carbon per year….

Once in the ocean, carbon dioxide gas reacts with water molecules to release hydrogen, making the ocean more acidic. The hydrogen reacts with carbonate from rock weathering to produce bicarbonate ions….

It is likely that changes in ocean temperatures and currents helped remove carbon from and then restore carbon to the atmosphere over the few thousand years in which the ice ages began and ended. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/page2.php

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Plants and phytoplankton are the main components of the fast carbon cycle. Phytoplankton (microscopic organisms in the ocean) and plants take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by absorbing it into their cells.

Using energy from the Sun, both plants and plankton combine carbon dioxide (CO2) and water to form sugar (CH2O) and oxygen. The chemical reaction looks like this:

CO2 + H2O + energy = CH2O + O2   http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/page3.php

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MONDAY, NOVEMBER 22, 2010

Venus: No Greenhouse Effect  http://theendofthemystery.blogspot.com/2010/11/venus-no-greenhouse-effect.html

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